Albayrak, M. (2010). An experimental study on preventing first graders from finger counting in basic calculations. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 8,(3), 1131-1150.

This research study shows the effects of preventing first grade students from counting with their fingers. The findings from this study imply that when students are taught to calculate without the use of their fingers, their problem solving skills develop more easily and they perform calculations in shorter time. The study also shows that students’ habitual use of finger counting can be broken. The students in the study were taught how to count various ways using three steps. First, they were taught how to count by ones and tens using rhythm. Next, they were taught how to count by ones into meaningful counting. Finally, students were taught to count concrete objects such as buttons, coins, etc., or semi-concrete objects (items on pictures being displayed). The study also revealed that when counting is related to daily life, the students become more interested in the activity. Games and competitions become more interesting for the students.

This study may help our project by serving as a reminder that our students may benefit more from using concrete and semi-concrete items when creating the math stories for the students to solve. For instance, creating stories for the PK students that consist of “adding 2 or 3 more” may be conceivable, or “2 less” with the addition of visuals.

This article relates to test performance of students with learning disabilities in the area of math and particularly their weaknesses inability to problem-solve and compute. The participants in the study were eighth grade students. According to the study, these students had problems deciphering the relevant information within the problems they were given to solve. Some of the problem solving the math problems was contributed to the students’ challenges in the area of reading. In the article, the authors discuss how many teachers generally target helping students master one skill such as (becoming more proficient with computation) and then later understanding the terms and language of the problem which results in the students lack of motivation to do word problems. The researchers in the study were using an activity called Enhanced Anchored Instruction to remedy the problem. The lessons and instruction consisted of word problems, however: it was geared towards solving smaller problems within the larger problem, that included videos (the anchors), and hands-on learning while using computational skills.

I think this article will help give our group some ideas of what we can include in our project. It will also serve as a reminder that we must differentiate our lessons to meet the needs of every student. The anchoring activity may be something that will benefit some of our students who are visual learners and may not make the connections when we present the lessons through lectures in our classrooms and finding a lesson presented online with animation or a video from our library may be a good alternative for some of our students to make the connection.

Charlesworth,K. & Lind, K. (2010). Math and science for young children. Belmont:Delmar

This book tells about the various ways to instruct children in the primary and elementary grades in math and science. The authors share their views on the dangers involved when teachers in the primary grades push their students to learn using only pencil and paper to acquire the basic math facts. They share other ways of helping students learn basic math and science concepts that involves the use of hands on materials, collaborating, and reasoning. The authors also explain how children should be allowed to work at their own pace through primary math as well as how the students should be allowed to invent their own procedures for solving problems.

This book would serve as a great resource. It has many strategies and ideas that we could use to help us create stories for the students. This will also be a helpful resource to have as we explain to our students the importance of using other tools and individuals to assist with learning in the classroom.

Ediger, M. (2007). Teaching mathematics successfully. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.

Chapter nineteen of this book explains the sequence that should be used when teaching mathematics to primary students. The author explains that teacher should model mathematics for students, check for understanding, implementing guided and independent practice. The author also suggests that lessons should be age appropriate and engaging to capture students’ attention.

This book provides important information for teaching math to primary students effectively. It gives a variety of methods that are successful in primary grades. This book will offer information on best practices in teaching math to young children.

Goodwin, B. (2010). Choice is a matter of degree. Educational Leadership. 68(1). 80-81.

Bryan Goodwin answers the question: Does more choice make better, happier students? Student’s projects can draw on student motivation to showcase critical thinking skills as well as content knowledge. Goodwin’s article talks about given students choices. However, while choice is a motivator in student work, too many choices can actually de-motivate students. Students should be offered limited choices, which are then gradually expanded options as students advance. Several studies have been done and research shows that if students are given too many choices, they may be de-motivated because it causes too much angst over whether they have chosen the right topic or expending energy on deciding what to do. It is recommended that teachers offer fewer choices to less experienced students. With more advanced students, teachers can expand the number of choices for students.

This article provides great research for teachers when providing choices for students. This is a great article for our project because it gives great information as far as given students choices. It is important for us to know that we should offer a limited number of choices. Teachers should make sure that they know their student’s ability levels and how much students can handle.

Guhan, B. & Guzel, E. (2010). Integrating technology into mathematics education: A case study from primary mathematics students teachers. International Journal of Human and Social Sciences, 2010, 5(8), 527-532.

This research study examines the importance of implementing technology when teaching mathematics. The study discusses ways that technology is implemented in mathematics. The findings of the study include technology assists students in the learning process and technology helps students to develop higher order thinking skills.

This study will assist with the project because it provides examples of ways that technology assists students and teachers in the area of mathematics. The study explains tools that are the most appropriate for content of study. It illustrates how to represent abstract content in ways that students understand and retain.

This research study was conducted by Allison Heyl at Dominican University. The researcher studies the impact that project based learning has on a group of high school students with a low socio-economic background. According to Heyl (2008), students who come from homes with lower socio-economic backgrounds are defined throughout the study as those students who qualify for free or reduced lunch. The evidence from this study and similar studies suggest that students who use real world context learn to think using strong reasoning and developed a motivation to learn math and attend classes. This study also emphasized the need for additional research to analyze the need for more longitudinal research to analyze the retention of high school mathematics concepts of students who come from both traditional and project based mathematics instruction.

The information obtained from this study is beneficial for the completion of our project because it reemphasizes the benefits of project based learning in math. Most of our students receive free and reduced lunch. Many of the students receive very little support in the home with school work because very few of the parents complete school and speak English. This article was encouraging and I think will serve as a motivator for the students and for the three teachers involved in this project.

Huang, K. & Ke, C. (2009). Integrating computer games with mathematics instruction in elementary school- An analysis of motivation, achievement, and pupil-teacher interactions. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2009, (60), 261-263.

This study examines the effectiveness of implementing computer games as a part of mathematical instruction. The study found that after computer games were implemented as part of the mathematical instruction student achievement, attitude, and motivation increased. The study indicates that computer games assist students in learning math. The computer games increase students’ engagement and attitudes about math instruction.

This study will be beneficial to the project because it has evidence that when computers are implemented correctly within math instruction then student achievement and access increase. The study illustrates games that are most effective with math curriculum and instruction. Not only did the games impact the students but they impacted the teachers too. The teachers used the games to assist students with particular skill of study.

Doug Johnson, Director of Media and Technology, for Mankato Public Schools, also serve as a faculty member of Minnesota State University. In this particular article, he discusses seven ways in which teachers can effectively integrate technology into their classrooms. Although all of the strategies discussed may not work for all schools, there are some that can be implemented effectively. One of the tools specifically, using cell phones as a classroom tool, would not be beneficial for my classroom. There are some who may not have cell phones or may not have access to the Internet. However, Doug Johnson has other points that can be used such as: taking delight in the fun of technology, accepting the role of co-learner, or even creatively finding and using resources that will have a strong connection within teacher inquiry.

This article demonstrates how technology can be effectively integrated into a classroom. Technology is not something else new to learn but a resource that can create a learning environment that is creative and engaging. There are lots of ways in which technology can be implemented. What works for my classroom may not work as effectively for another classroom. This article can provide some insight on ways in which I can implement technology so that it is beneficial for all learners within the learning environment.

In another article by Doug Johnson, he discusses mistakes that teachers often make with the use of technology. In this article, he focuses on the negative behaviors that teachers often have concerning technology. Many teachers look at technology as something new to add to their list of learning. Many of his points do not concern the process of teacher inquiry through the use of blogs or other technological resources. Johnson doesn’t concern with ethical use of computers and the role of teachers’ attitudes toward them. However, he does discuss how teachers can actually gain from implementing technology into their classes. With this intrinsic interest of tech use in today’s kids, as teachers, we should continue on the path of implementing technology into every aspect of our lives as well as our students.

I believe that this article is very beneficial to our collaborative project because it discusses how not to use technology. There are many teachers who feel as if technology is a burden within the classroom. The article explains how we are working with tech savvy students. Therefore, it would be beneficial to embrace technology as well as implement it into our classrooms.

Judd, T., Kennedy, G., & Cropper, S. (2010). Using wikis for collaborative learning: assessing collaboration through contribution. Australian Journal of Educational Technology. 26(3). 341-354.

Terry Judd, Gregor Kennedy, and Simon Cropper discuss how wikis are widely promoted as collaborative writing tools and are gaining popularity in educational settings. Wikis include features that are designed to facilitate collaboration between students. However, the article also talks about the collaborative behavior based on contributions to wiki-based shared tasks. Oftentimes, a small portion of the students does the bulk of the work. When wikis were first created, the main focus was collaborations through the use of different projects or assignments. Students collaborative behavior is tracked based on the amount of information is contributed to the class wiki. Students took very little advantage of the wikis comment feature.

This article is very beneficial for our project because it tells information on how wikis have been used by students. With the article, we see that small portions of students contribute information to the wiki while barely using the comment feature. With this in mind, as teachers, we should come up with some type of way to make sure that all students take responsibility for contributing to the wiki as well as providing feedback as needed.

Kervin, L. & Mantei, J. (2009). Using computers to support children as authors: an examination of three cases. Technology, Pedagogy and Education. 18(1). 19-32.

The study examination by Kervin and Mantei focuses on three case studies in which students are actively engaged in creating their own text as part of their involvement with technology. In one case study, students were told to research different ways that their text could be presented. As a result, they were able to understand how to create the text and were able to teach other group members. The students were given the opportunity to present their text to their teachers. This gave them a sense of the text and they began to use the language of technology as they transformed their text to fit their audience. The main focus of the case was to show how students demonstrated their ability to master independent research, writing, and was able to collaborate and teach others.

This study provides great information that can help with our project. It shows that students can handle independent work with choices. In the study, students were given different roles. With their roles came different tasks to complete. When each task was done, students would collaborate with their group members to teach them what they had researched and learned. This article show that students do have the ability to master independent research, writing, while also collaborating with other students.

Lee, H., & Hollebrands, K. (2008). Preparing to teach mathematics with technology: an integrated approach to developing technological pedagogical content knowledge. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. 8(4). Retrieved from http://www.citejournal.org/vol8/iss4/mathematics/article1.cfm

The purpose of this article is to share and discuss examples from materials developed by the Preparing to Teach Mathematics with Technology (PTMT) project created to prepare teachers to use technology to teach math. They want to prepare teachers to teach math in ways appropriate for students who live in a world that includes rapidly changing technology. Recently, authors have discussed and describe technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge as a type of teachers’ knowledge needed for teachers to understand how to use technology effectively to teach specific subject matter. The attention for the need for courses on using technology in teaching mathematics is encouraging but may not be enough for teachers. Given the changing nature of technology, it is important that many teachers develop a model of teaching and learning that goes beyond the specifics of a technology tool.

This journal article is great because it gives perspective on integrating technology into a math classroom. Before implementing technology, it is important to know the content of one’s curriculum. Implementing technology in the classroom is a great thing, but it is not enough to make sure students are learning. This journal article expresses the use of technology in the classroom along with other effective resources that are beneficial.

Lin, C. (2008). Beliefs about using technology in the mathematics classroom: Interviews with Pre-service Elementary Teachers. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 2008, 4(2), 135-142.

This research study explains how teachers feel about using technology to teach mathematical concepts. It explains that teachers comfort level of implementing technology into teaching mathematics. The study examines students’ views about using technology when learning math. The study found that many of the teachers felt confident implementing technology into their classrooms. Many felt that technology is beneficial for the students’ understanding of the mathematical concepts.

This study will assist in our project by keeping in mind that teachers must first feel comfortable with the technology prior to its implementation. This study will assist us in keeping the goals of the students in mind when implementing and using technology to teach, demonstrate, and practice Mathematic concepts.

Murray, B., Silver-Pacuilla, H., & Helsel,F.I.,(2007). Improving basic mathematics instruction: Promising technology resources for students with special needs.Technology In Action.2 (5). 1-8. Retrieved January 19,2011 from http://www.cited.org/library/site/039%20TAM-TIA-Feb-07-21.pdf

This study identifies technology resources in the area of mathematics for students with special needs. Murray et al shares several effective teaching practices designed to enhance math instruction. The article shows how technology can be used to help students practice basic skills introduce a skill, provide practice or assessment and remediation. Internet resources with suggestions for classroom modifications are included throughout the article as well as specific instructional strategies and technologies that include the use of calculators, screen readers, and tactile graphics to assist students with special needs.

While completing our collaborative project, this article will be great to refer to when working with our students with disabilities. The article has numerous websites that we could refer to for additional information and resources. The strategies and suggestions outlined in the article will also be helpful for students who typically perform low academically.

Piccolo, D. & Test, J. (2010). Investigating and describing spontaneous, exploratory play opens a window into the types of mathematics that very young students can and do accomplish. Teaching Children Mathematics, December 2010/January 2011, Vol. 16(5), 311-316.

This article discusses how preschoolers’ learn mathematical concepts while exploratory play with blocks. The article explains that the students’ gain problem-solving skills, spatial concepts, and understanding of patterns and shapes through exploring and manipulating blocks. All of these skills are important aspects of math curriculum throughout elementary, middle, and high school. Experiments in actual preschool classrooms were conducted to investigate what children learn from exploratory play. The authors noted the students created simple patterns with the blocks and were able to manipulate the blocks correctly. This article gives the reader insight to the importance of hands-on activities and the implementation of manipulatives in math classrooms.

This article provides information that is useful when planning mathematical lessons for young children. It gives insight of how much learning truly takes place through play and exploration. It will assist by providing information of what mathematical skills that young children are able to grasp, learn, and understand when presented correctly.

Rosenfeld, B. (2008). The challenges of teaching with technology: From computer idiocy to computer competence. International Journal of Instructional Media. 35 (2). 157-166.

In this journal article, Dr. Rosenfeld focuses on the effectiveness of technology within the classroom. She states that to use technologies in the classroom, teachers need to have access to technologies. Often, we see lots of teachers with these great ideas to implement technology but they don’t have access to what they need to carry out the plan. Dr. Rosenfeld also focuses on the need to train teachers so that they are more comfortable with using the technologies in the classroom. To effectively plan and implement technology in today’s classroom, teachers must continue to develop the necessary skills to integrate technology successfully into the curriculum.

I believe that this article is beneficial to what we are working on with our project because it discusses the importance of successfully implementing technology. The article focuses heavily on teachers having access to technology before being able to implement it into classrooms. In schools today, teachers as well as administrators, must continue to develop the skills necessary to integrate technology successfully.

Sarama, J. & Douglas H. C. (2007). Early math: How children problem solve. Early Childhood Today.

In an article retrieved from Early Childhood Today, Sarama and Clements, discuss various ways to help children use problem solving strategies in the classroom. They also suggest that caretakers and teachers make children aware of their ability to solve problems by allowing children to recognize and use particular strategies they may already unconsciously use to solve problems such as modeling an adult to solve a problem. The article has several strategies to encourage problem solving. One strategy is to help the children see the math problems in their immediate environment. Another is making sure that manipulatives are available for use. The authors also make note of asking children to demonstrate or explain how they solve problems. Finally, they emphasize the importance of making sure that help is available to students when needed.

This article will be very beneficial as we complete our project. It is a great resource to refer to as it will serve as a reminder during our whole group instruction as well as when we are facilitating the collaborative learning in the groups. As our group differentiates the lessons for our individual classes it will be important to make sure that various manipulatives are available in addition to the technology and any visual and auditory aids that students may need to help them understand the skill we are teaching.

Scarpello, G. (2010). Tips for Teaching Math to Elementary Students. Education Digest. September 2010, 59-60.

This article offers tips to successfully teach math to students. Teachers must first be confident with the material they are presenting to build student confidence. The article explains how teachers should guide the instruction for the students. It also discusses that students must understand not only how to do math but why it is important.

This article will be beneficial for the project by providing tips that can be used when presenting lessons to our students. It reminds us as educators that we must keep the students in mind when presenting content. The article offers tips that will assist students while learning mathematical concepts.

van 't Hooft, M. (2007). Schools, children, and digital technology: Building better relationships for a better tomorrow. Innovate 3 (4). Retrieved January 17, 2011 from http://www.innovateonline.info/

In this article van 't Hooft (2007) uses numerous several pieces of research to elaborate on his the discussion of the various kinds of digital tools and technologies being used in schools as well as what has led to their popularity. The article also addresses the problems that some students are facing in regards to inappropriately using the social networking sites, the schools involvement in the students’ technology experiences beyond the school grounds and parents and some schools officials lack of knowledge regarding social networking sites and their fears of the technology becoming a hindrance to the students learning. In the article, the writer addresses these issues and gives suggestions on how to teach students the importance of understanding the importance of using the tools appropriately and safely. However, van 't Hooft (2007), also reminds educators that students need to be creative and are living in an age where they may have access to technologies that may not be in our schools to use however; they can be accessed through other means. Therefore many of the students in classrooms are used to being challenged with such technologies and should not be hindered due to a teacher’s lack of knowledge regarding the technology or fear of exposure. In the article he recommends educators consider a new approach to teaching that involves the use of digital technology and more open communication where learning can take place within a true community.

This article was geared more towards older students. However; I think the principles could be applied in the learning communities our groups construct also. I think if the teachers keep an open mind and research the various tools before using them and sharing them with students they will be more beneficial for a successful outcome. I think it may be a good idea to let the parents know what a wiki is since some of them may not be familiar with that term. Perhaps sharing what we are doing in a class newsletter will be helpful as we complete our project.

In this article the author explains how Google Docs can be implemented into the classroom to assist both teachers and students. The article explains how Google Docs is a great tool that promotes teamwork and collaboration. An advantage of using Google Docs is that it is free. The article provides examples of how Google Docs can be implemented effectively within the classroom.

This article is helpful for the project because it offers information on how to effectively implement Google Docs within the classroom. It gives examples on how both students and teachers can use this free technology. It briefly explains the capabilities of Google Docs.

## This study may help our project by serving as a reminder that our students may benefit more from using concrete and semi-concrete items when creating the math stories for the students to solve. For instance, creating stories for the PK students that consist of “adding 2 or 3 more” may be conceivable, or “2 less” with the addition of visuals.

Bottge, B. (2010). Anchoring problem-solving and computation instruction in context-rich learning environments. Retrieved on January 16, 2011 from http://www.faqs.org/periodicals/201007/2074254341.html

- I think this article will help give our group some ideas of what we can include in our project. It will also serve as a reminder that we must differentiate our lessons to meet the needs of every student. The anchoring activity may be something that will benefit some of our students who are visual learners and may not make the connections when we present the lessons through lectures in our classrooms and finding a lesson presented online with animation or a video from our library may be a good alternative for some of our students to make the connection.

Charlesworth,K. & Lind, K. (2010). Math and science for young children. Belmont:Delmar

Ediger, M. (2007). Teaching mathematics successfully. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.

Goodwin, B. (2010). Choice is a matter of degree. Educational Leadership. 68(1). 80-81.

Guhan, B. & Guzel, E. (2010). Integrating technology into mathematics education: A case study from primary mathematics students teachers.

International Journal of Human and Social Sciences,2010, 5(8), 527-532.Heyl, A. (2008). Fostering engagement for student from low-socioeconomic status backgrounds using project based mathematics. Retrieved on January 16, 2011 from http://www.dominican.edu/academics/education/seed/filestorage/heylallison.pdf

Huang, K. & Ke, C. (2009). Integrating computer games with mathematics instruction in elementary school- An analysis of motivation, achievement, and pupil-teacher

interactions.

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2009, (60), 261-263.Johnson, D. (2009). Seven brilliant things teachers do with technology. Retrieved on January 15, 2011 from http://www.educationworld.com/a_tech/columnists/

johnson/johnson033.shtml.

Johnson, D. (2009). Seven stupid mistakes teachers do with technology. Retrieved on January 15, 2011 from http://www.educationworld.com/a_tech/columinists/ johnson/johnson032.shtml.

Judd, T., Kennedy, G., & Cropper, S. (2010). Using wikis for collaborative learning: assessing collaboration through contribution. Australian Journal of Educational Technology. 26(3). 341-354.

Kervin, L. & Mantei, J. (2009). Using computers to support children as authors: an examination of three cases. Technology, Pedagogy and Education. 18(1). 19-32.

Lee, H., & Hollebrands, K. (2008). Preparing to teach mathematics with technology: an integrated approach to developing technological pedagogical content knowledge.

Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. 8(4). Retrieved from http://www.citejournal.org/vol8/iss4/mathematics/article1.cfmLin, C. (2008). Beliefs about using technology in the mathematics classroom: Interviews with

Pre-service Elementary Teachers.

Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education,2008, 4(2), 135-142.Murray, B., Silver-Pacuilla, H., & Helsel,F.I.,(2007). Improving basic mathematics instruction: Promising technology resources for students with special needs.

Technology In Action.2 (5). 1-8. Retrieved January 19,2011 from http://www.cited.org/library/site/039%20TAM-TIA-Feb-07-21.pdfPiccolo, D. & Test, J. (2010). Investigating and describing spontaneous, exploratory play opens a window into the types of mathematics that very young students can and do accomplish.

Teaching Children Mathematics,December 2010/January 2011, Vol. 16(5), 311-316.Rosenfeld, B. (2008). The challenges of teaching with technology: From computer idiocy to computer competence. International Journal of Instructional Media. 35 (2). 157-166.

Sarama, J. & Douglas H. C. (2007). Early math: How children problem solve.

Early Childhood Today.Scarpello, G. (2010). Tips for Teaching Math to Elementary Students.

Education Digest.September 2010, 59-60.van 't Hooft, M. (2007). Schools, children, and digital technology: Building better relationships for a better tomorrow.

Innovate3 (4). Retrieved January 17, 2011 from http://www.innovateonline.info/Walsh, K. (2010). Google Docs: Why teachers and students should be using them for course work.

EmergingEdTech,November 2010.Retrieved on January 21, 2011 fromhttp://www.emergingedtech.com/2010/11/google-docs-why-teachers-and-students-should-be-using-them-for-course-work/