Step-by-Step Instructional Strategies

Goals: At the end of this project, students will understand:

  • Questions can be used to collect data.
  • Data may be organized and interpreted to understand its meaning.
  • Data may be organized using, charts, tables, and various graphs.
  • The purpose of organizing data is to determine the mean, median, mode, and range. (4th)


Objectives:
  • Students will learn how to count or reinforce the skills that are present.
  • Students will also practice naming and recognizing the colors.
  • Students will sort their skittles by colors to record data for graphing.
  • Students will then learn how to graph their results as a class in multiple ways.
  • Students will analyze the data collected from their bag of skittles.


Essential Question:
  • Why do I need to ask questions to collect data?
  • What is the purpose of collecting, organizing, and displaying data?


How is this an authentic question for your learners?
Pre-K:
  • The essential questions are authentic for Pre-K students because they can role play the stories in order to accurately solve them. The students become the story and it is no longer abstract because they are participating within the story. A process chart also assist learners to sequence the problem effectively and helps the students determine when to add or subtract to solve problems.


Second Grade:
  • The essential questions are authentic because second graders will work together to organize, analyze, and interpret information to solve problems and make judgments using mental math. Students will use pictures and graphs to relay information from manipulatives to complete mathematical equations, classify, group and sort.


Fourth Grade:
  • The essential questions are authentic for fourth grade learners because they often have a hard time with determining how information is collected to show data on tables and graphs. Using the skittles helps students to see that math is an integral part of daily life and can be applied to many situations. Therefore, students can actually put themselves in the problem while trying to find the answer. Students are being challenged even further by having to use the information from their data to find the data set of the skittle. Using the data set, students will use operational strategies to find the mean, median, mode, and range.


Three Classrooms’ Collaboration Activity:
  • Within each classroom, students will work in small groups to collect, record, and represent their data. Each group will be assigned to a learning community made up of groups from all three classrooms. Within the learning community, students will utilize Google Docs to share their recorded data in the form of tally charts, frequency tables, and bar graphs. Each group will be required to compile their data and make inferences based on their information. The 4th grade students will take it one step ahead and use the data presented to their learning community to find the mean, median, mode, and range. Last, students will have an assigned area in the wiki to answer several questions for journal and reflecting purposes on the assignment.


Each Classroom’s Collaboration:
  • The Pre-kindgergarten class will form three small groups. Each group will be assigned to a learning community. With the help of their teacher, students will sort by color, count, and graph their skittles. The teacher will take pictures of the sheet that students used to graph their skittle and upload them to the wiki. As a class, students will record their information to make a bar graph to show how many of each color skittle they had.

  • The second grade class will form three small groups and each group will be assigned to a learning community. Second graders will work to sort their skittles and record the number of each color in a tally chart. Students will then match the tallies to its actual number. Each group will receive a sheet to create a bar graph using the data from the tally charts. Each group will also complete the addition and subtraction fact sheet to show more and less using their skittles. Students will then answer questions about their results. Second graders will take pictures of their activities and upload the results to the wiki.

  • The fourth grade class will also form three small groups and each group will be assigned to a learning community. Each group will receive a bag of skittles to sort and record the results in a tally chart and frequency table. Each group must create a survey question or title for the bar graph. Using graph paper, each group will create a bar graph to show the data from the frequency table. As an extension to this lesson, fourth grade students will use the data collected to find the mean, median, mode, and range of the data set. Each group will use take pictures and upload their information to the wiki.

  • Each class will follow the assigned activity provided by the teachers in Google Docs. All students will work in groups to collect the information needed to upload to the wiki. Each group within the learning community will have questions to answer so that they can effectively provide feedback for their partner groups from other grade levels. Students will also complete a journal entry and a reflection at the end of the activity.


Equipment:
  • Laptops or computers with access to GoogleDocs and Wikispaces
  • Digital camera
  • Fun-size bags of skittles (Pre-kindergarten
  • Assigned sheets for graphing the skittles (Pre-kindergarten)
  • Assigned sheet for bar graph (2nd grade)
  • Addition and subtraction facts sheet for skittles by colors (2nd grade)
  • Graphic organizer for mean, median, mode, and range (4th grade)
  • Graph paper for tally chart, frequency table, and bar graph (4th grade)
  • Crayons
  • Glue (PreK students for skittles)
  • Ziploc bags of skittles (2nd and 4th grade groups)




Step-by-Step Instructional Strategies:
Preview Activity Before Day 1:
Pre-kindergarten
2nd Grade
4th Grade
Brain Pop video
  • Word Wall - Preview vocabulary words: tally chart, data, survey, record, and bar graph
  • Tally Charts and Bar Graphs
  • Drawing Activity on taking a survey in class and recording the results.
K-W-L Chart
  • Introduction to the lesson on graphing.
Brain Pop
  • Word Wall - Preview vocabulary words: tally chart, data, survey, record, and bar graph
K-W-L Chart
  • Have students brainstorm on previous knowledge about graphs and how they are used.
Brain Pop
  • Graphs
  • Review Quiz
Vocabulary Power Words
  • survey, scale, frequency, interval, data, tally, bar graph. Students will define the words and give their own words and examples of each.


Day 1:
Pre-Kindergarten
2nd Grade
4th Grade
TTW read the M & M Counting Book
  • Class will discuss the book
  • Class will review colors
  • Teacher will introduce vocabulary words (estimate, count, sort, and pattern)
  • TSW role play vocabulary words to gain understanding of the words.
  • TSW complete estimation activity.
Materials:
M & M Counting Book, 4 bags of approximately 20 skittles,
pencils, “How Many Worksheet”, Skittle Sorting Worksheet

Read the M & M Counting Book
  • Discuss the book and how it relates to the prior days lesson
  • Review the vocabulary

Explain the activity using Google Docs.

Begin the activity using the skittles. Restate the essential questions.What is data? Why would you need to ask questions to collect data? What is the purpose of organizing, collecting and displaying data?

Give 4 small groups of students bags of approximately 20 skittles to predict the number of skittles they think are in the bags according to color.

Distribute the "How Many Worksheet" to students.
Students are to record their predictions or estimates. Then
students are to categorize the skittle by colors and give the actual
number of skittles for each color and record the number on their worksheets.
  • Students are to write whether they were accurate in their estimations and what they learned from the lesson.
In groups, students will read the M & M Counting Book
  • Ask students to discuss what the book was about.
  • How can M & M’s be used to collect data?
  • How can this data be shown in a table or chart?
Survey Class Activity
  • Class will participate in a survey on their favorite sport.
  • Work in groups to show this data in a tally chart and frequency table.
  • How can we show this information in a bar graph?
  • Bar graphing activity on the favorite sports in the classroom will be used as quiz grade.
Discuss using the data set from the frequency table to find mean, median, mode, and range.


Day 2:
Pre-Kindergarten
2nd Grade
4th Grade
Review M & M Counting Book
  • Skittle Activity will be introduced using Google Docs.
  • Students will be assigned to a learning community.
  • Groups will review vocabulary words (estimate, count, sort, and pattern).
  • Students will estimate and record how many skittles they think are in their bags.
  • Students will open bags, count Skittles, and record actual amount (with their teacher’s assistance).
  • Students will sort Skittles by color and record the number of each on the How Many Worksheet.
As students continue to work in small groups, discuss the essential questions to give students an opportunity to reflect on the previous lesson.

Google Docs
  • Introduce students to the Skittles Activity
  • Text-to-Text - How does the M & M activity sound similar to what we will do with the skittles?
Assign students to small groups and learning community.
  • Have students decide who will be in charge of what part of the activity.
Give each group the required materials:
  • Ziploc bag of skittles
  • Graph paper
  • Ruler
  • Digital camera
Students will begin the first part of the activity.
  • Sort the skittles by colors.
  • Collect data for the tally chart and frequency table.
  • Have the person in charge of the camera to take pictures during the assignment.
  • Students need to keep all materials in their assigned baskets.


Day 3:
Pre-Kindergarten
2nd Grade
4th Grade
Large Group Discussion:
  • Students will review vocabulary words (sort and patterns).
  • Students will work in groups to create simple patterns.
  • Students will share created patterns.
  • Teacher will take pictures of patterns created.
Materials: “Skittles Adding Sheet”, 4- 5 zip loc bags of 20 skittles, pencils, digital camera,computers
  • Each student will receive an adding sheet.
  • Have each student pull 3 green skittles out of his/her bag and place them on the first line on their adding sheet. Have them record a #3 on the first line.
  • Next, have each student pull 2 red skittles out of his/her bag and place them on the second line of (question #1) on their adding sheet. Have them record a #2 on the second line.
  • Then have the students combine the 3 green and 2 red skittles on the third line (question #1) by counting how many skittles they have all together. Then have them record how many they have in all on the third line.
Repeat this process for the next three questions on the sheet, using different numbers (Teacher needs choose add ends that are appropriate for your students)
  • Teacher should choose 1 student in each group to demonstrate how to use the digital camera. Pictures should be taken of the completed tasks to be uploaded to the wiki at the end of the assignment.
Collaboration with neighboring schools

  • Explain to the class that they will be sharing what they have learned with 2 schools in an online project. Tell them that they will be using their classroom computers to journal using a wiki and a digital camara to share how they are using the skittles to gather information to graph and create math sentences and equations. Have the students explain how the information used in the graphs was also used to create math equations that provided similar information on the wiki.
Class Discussion:
  • Review vocabulary words and how they were used in the activity.What steps did we take to collect data using the bag of skittles?
Wiki Information:
  • Discuss how other classes are completing the same activity but on different levels.
  • Assign students to learning community.
  • Assign groups a laptop or computer.
  • Hand out hard copy of how information should be set up.
  • Have students upload information and pictures to the wiki.

Day 4:
Pre-Kindergarten
2nd Grade
4th Grade
Skittles Activity Part 2:
  • Students will review the colors that are found in a bag of Skittles.
  • Students will complete their bar graphs by gluing their Skittles to the graphing worksheet to represent group’s data.
  • Teachers will take photographs of the created bar graphs and upload it to the wiki.
  • Groups will discuss questions from the wiki and teacher will type student responses to the questions.
Materials:
Computers from the lab, students math journals

  • Students will complete the KWL chart they began as a whole group for the pre-activity discussing what they have learned to share with the learning community on the wiki.
  • Students will collaborate with other schools using the wiki to ask questions regarding how they used the skittles in their classes and share ideas/information that may be helpful.
Skittles Activity Part 2:
  • Groups will need to show the data set from the frequency table.
  • Complete their bar graphs with the correct scale based on their data sets.
  • Graphic organizer on mean, median, mode, and range.
Students will have a graphic organizer that contains information on how to find the mean, median, mode, and range.
  • Upload bar graphs and graphic organizers to the wiki.
  • Students will be graded on their presented information. Discuss rubric.
Wiki Collaboration:
  • Students will have a list of questions that they can choose from to provide feedback to the other groups in their learning community.
  • Each group must provide feedback to the other groups today.

Day 5:
Pre-Kindergarten
2nd Grade
4th Grade
Large Group:
  • Groups will share their completed Skittles Bar Graph
  • Class will discuss the different graphs.

Wiki Collaboration:
  • Teachers will ensure that all information is posted to the wiki for their group.
  • Each group must provide feedback to the other groups today.

Complete Individual Reflection Activity:
  • Students will draw a reflection of the Skittles activity.
  • Students will explain their reflection to the teacher for dictation.
  • Students’ drawings be displayed and then kept in individual portfolios.
  • Activity: Weekly Reflection. Students are to complete "My Skittle Graph" worksheet" independently for a weekly assessment using individual bags of (approx. 15-20) skittles.
  • Wiki Collaboration: Teacher needs to work with the students to make sure that all to the information and entries for the previous days questioning and reflections have been posted to the wiki.
Wiki Collaboration:
  • Students need to make sure that all of the information is posted for their group.
  • Students will have a list of questions that they can choose from to provide feedback to the other groups in their learning community.
  • Each group must provide feedback to the other groups today.

Complete the journal activity (individual).
  • Reflect on the skittles activity. How did we use this activity to answer the essential questions?
  • How did you feel about collaborating with other students who completed the same activity in different ways?
  • Could you have helped the other classes with this activity?

Rubric for ending product.